阿尔伯克基家庭法律律师处理的最常见的问题之一是儿童监护权. Child custody is an issue for many parents in New Mexico, 这可能是任何父母不同居的家庭的一个因素。. 这篇文章将讨论新墨西哥州的儿童监护法律,以及它们通常如何应用于离婚或监护案件. Please note that there is no substitute for personalized legal advice, so if you have a divorce or custody issue here in New Mexico, chat with a live representative now, contact us or call 505.317.4455 to set up your consultation. 

New Mexico family, sharing joint custody

Legal vs Physical Custody

Child custody consists of both physical custody and legal custody. 身体监护权与孩子住的地方有关,这可以是共同的或唯一的身体监护权. With shared physical custody, 孩子与父母双方生活在一起,通常法院会命令父母提交育儿计划. A parenting plan 是否有一个详细的分时计划大纲,说明孩子何时与父母双方相处,相处多长时间. In cases where parents are unable to agree on a custody arrangement, mediation may be necessary as well as the intervention of professionals 谁能代表孩子说话或把孩子放在他/她最关心的地方. 最终,法院将决定孩子应该住在哪里,以及父母双方是否有照顾孩子的特权. Additionally, shared physical custody does not always mean half and half, 因此,对于孩子的生活状况,你能做的和不能做的可能是有限制的.  

Furthermore, 法定监护权是指父母对医疗等重要事务做出决定的权利, education, recreation, and religion. Unlike with physical custody, legal custody is usually granted jointly to both parents. That is not to say that joint legal custody will always be awarded to parents. Sole legal custody is granted to a parent if the other parent lives far away, is violent or neglectful, or not involved in the child’s life. In some cases, however, 父母双方可能都同意,最好是由一方来做日常决定,而另一方仍然有权参与法律决定.  


New Mexico is a 50-50 State

It's important to remember that New Mexico is considered a “50-50 state”. 这意味着新墨西哥州家庭法院的法官希望父母双方都积极参与孩子的生活. They will try to make custody arrangements as equal as possible, although the circumstances of the case may lead to one parent having primary physical custody. NM家庭法庭的法官不会拒绝一个父母接触孩子或考虑单独监护权,除非有合法的理由这样做. Generally, there have to be serious concerns about abuse, neglect, or substance abuse for a judge to consider keeping the child away from one parent. Even then, 大多数法官会要求重新融入社会的治疗或监督探视,以保持父母关系的完整性. This being said, 聚会各方都规定(同意)孩子最好花大部分时间和父母中的一方在一起,这是很正常的. Likewise, 对不负责任的行为或药物滥用的担忧可以被证实,可能需要改变拘留. We discuss the factors that go into a custody determination in a later section.


Joint Custody in New Mexico

Unless you agree to a time-sharing schedule with the other parent, or there are allegations of abuse, neglect or unsafe conditions, the judge will likely implement a shared custody parenting plan, 父母要么平分监护权要么一方得到主要监护权然后分开, for example, 60-40 or 70-30. 法官在做出这些决定时使用的标准是什么对孩子最有利. 这意味着他们在决定谁将拥有主要的身体监护权时,会考虑谁是主要的照顾者. If you want to have primary physical custody of your child, you must prove that your the parent who takes care of their daily needs, takes them to school, to doctor’s appointments, helps them with their homework and is involved in their life. The more both parents are involved, the more likely the court will insist on an equal time-sharing schedule. Similarly, if one parent is much more involved or better able to care for the child, the court will likely grant that parent primary physical custody.  However, even if one parent has primary physical custody, legal custody will likely remain 50-50, 这意味着,在人生的重大决定上,监护权父母仍需要征求另一方的意见. 


Sole Custody in New Mexico

As we have said, in New Mexico, 家庭法法官根据什么对孩子最有利的标准作出决定. 该标准旨在促进儿童的情感、心理和身体健康和发展. 这意味着,如果法院能够实现这些目标,并确定这样的监护权安排符合孩子的最大利益,那么它将授予孩子唯一的监护权. 唯一监护权赋予父母一方抚养孩子的所有权利和责任,同时将他们完全带离另一方. Sole custody can be legal, physical, or both. 如果另一个父母被认定为不合适的父母,法院可以将唯一监护权判给父母中的一方. Remember, just because you disagree with the other parents’ parenting, dating, or lifestyle choices does not mean they are an unfit parent. 法院将非常不情愿地取消父母的亲权,所以“不适合”的标准通常很高. Generally, 如果父母有(可证明的)药物或酒精成瘾,或者发现有虐待或忽视儿童的行为,就可以认定他们不合格. 法院考虑的其他因素包括父母是否曾将孩子置于危险的情况下,或者父母是否有暴力史或精神不稳定的历史,这将使他们对孩子构成威胁或无法照顾他们. 


Parenting Plans 

A parenting plan is one of the most vital agreements to put in place when facing a divorce with children or a custody case in New Mexico. Even in the most amicable divorces, or even if you were never married to the other parent, it is essential to have a parenting plan in place. The parenting plan helps to determine major details of your child’s living arrangements, schooling, and how decisions that impact their future will be made. If you don’t have one in place, there is nothing outlying custody, 所以如果父母的另一方选择带走孩子或者违反监护权协议,你将有有限的追索权. 因为育儿计划可能很复杂,通常会对孩子的生活和家庭动态产生巨大的影响, 建议你找一位有经验的家庭律师协助你设置或修改它.


1. Legal custody details

2. Physical custody details

3. Time-sharing schedule including vacations and holidays

4. Health care details

5. Education plan

6. Extracurricular activities

7. Child care

8. Child support details

9. College expense responsibilities

10.Resolving parents discrepancies

Custody Modifications

According to New Mexico law, a child custody and visitation agreement can be modified if there's a "material and substantial change" that affects the children. What constitutes a material and substantial change depends on the unique circumstances of you, the children, and the other parent. How you change your child’s custody or visitation depends on whether you and the other parent agree on the circumstances. If both parents approve the proposed changes, you can file a motion and proposed order with the court. The court reviews your proposal and issues a final order.

  • Maybe you want more or less time with your child.

  • You or the other parent are moving somewhere else.

  • You have a new job.

  • The other parent is showing signs of being neglectful or abusive.

If a parent contests the changes, the parent requesting the modification should file a motion with the court. The court reviews the motion and decides whether an amendment should be made. Alternatively, 父母如有异议,可通过法院申请调解服务,以便这些影响子女福祉的重大问题能够以公平公正的方式得到解决.


How Custody is Determined in New Mexico

现在法院背离了“孩子的最大利益”的原则,这意味着其目标是确保孩子得到幸福的培养, security, mental health, and emotional development. The courts gauge that by looking at how engaged you are in your child’s life with activities, school, daycare, etc. 如果父亲是孩子的主要监护人,那么他就有资格从另一个父母那里获得子女抚养费. This support is directly for providing a home, food, and clothing for the child.In short, 新墨西哥州法院在做出监护权决定时采用“孩子的最大利益”的标准. That's why it's best that you prove you are the person best suited to take care of your child’s day to day needs.

Is New Mexico a “Mother’s State”?

Mothers and fathers have the exact same rights when it comes to divorce and custody in New Mexico, however, there are some biases that remain in the courtroom towards mothers. The reason this bias started was from a court precedent called “the tender year’s doctrine”. 这一法律原则始于19世纪,它支持母亲对孩子拥有完全的监护权,直到孩子4岁. This principle is no longer instated in the courts but the bias sometimes still remains. That means fathers need to prove they should be the primary care giver if that is the case.


How Can Our NM Custody Attorneys Help You

Here at Genus Law Group, we understand that your children mean everything to you. Whether you are fighting for sole or partial custody, creating a parenting plan, or trying to modify your current custody arrangement, our lawyers can help you get your desired outcome. Our attorneys help all New Mexico residents with their divorce, custody, alimony, or guardianship matters. Contact us at 505.317.4455 or chat with someone on our online chat box to schedule a consultation now! 

Anthony Spratley
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Experienced Divorce, Child Custody, and Guardianship Lawyer Serving Albuquerque and Beyond